# Search the site for the term 'R program'

• ## EDF files of physiological signals

28/03/2019

When we try to learn how to work with time series, it is very useful to have good data sets, and much better if they contain real data. It is difficult to obtain long series, or series presenting interesting and well located and identified patterns, with which we can perform practices. An excellent source of complex time series is our own organism, and everything we can learn by working with them can be extrapolated to any other context.

• ## Extending WinRQA II, series of recurrence measures

27/01/2017

WInRQA is an application dedicated to recurrence plots, a tool that is used in the analysis of recurrence of complex time series. In this article I will introduce a new tool that I have added to the program. Until now, the measures of quantification of recurrence (RQM) were obtained only from a static portion of the original series. With the new tool, we can obtain a series of measures by moving a window along the entire original series and calculating the corresponding measurements to each of these windows.

• ## Beyond chaos, randomness

18/11/2016

In this article I will show how, through a very simple and totally deterministic process, we can move from a stationary system to a completely random one, going through periodic and chaotic dynamics. For this, I will generate several time series with these characteristics using the program R and several packages that can help us in the analysis of them.

• ## PISA Data Analytics, Correspondece Analysis

21/10/2016

The PISA database contains, in addition to the scores of students, a lot of demographic, socioeconomic and cultural data about them, collected through a series of questionnaires, that allow contextualize the academic results and make studies with a great number of variables. Most of these data are categorical, making the correspondence analysis a particularly appropriate tool to work with them. In this article I will show you how to easily perform this analysis using the ca package of the R program.

• ## Complex Time Series VI, recurrence plots

12/10/2016

To conclude this series on complex time series and their characterization using graphical tools I will show you a tool called recurrence plot, which allows to obtain some measures used in the recurrence quantification analysis, or RQA for its acronym in English. The recurrence is a characteristic property of deterministic dynamical systems, and consists of that two or more states of the system are arbitrarily close after a certain period of time.

• ## Recurrent neural networks and time series

02/10/2016

The recurrent neural networks are a very appropriate tool for modeling time series. This is a type of network architecture that implements some kind of memory and, therefore, a sense of time. This is achieved by implementing some neurons receiving as input the output of one of the hidden layers, and injecting their output again in that layer. In this article I will show a simple way to use two neural networks of this kind, the Elman and Jordan ones, using the program R.

• ## Complex Time Series IV, power spectrum and distribution

24/09/2016

In this new article of the series dedicated to the graphic characterization of complex time series I will talk about two other graphical tools that can be useful, the power spectrum of the signal, which will be obtained through the Fourier transform, and the graph of the distribution of values of the series, a simple histogram with the frequency of the different values that also can provide us information about the series dynamics.

• ## Complex Time Series II, Web diagrams

10/09/2016

I continue the series on graphic characterization of the complexity in time series using the helper application GraphStudy. In this article I will show how to construct a graph with which you can easily distinguish whether a particular series from an iterated function presents a chaotic dynamics, the web diagram.

• ## Complex Time Series I, Basics

02/09/2016

Many of the data sets with which we usually work are in the form of time series. A time series can be seen as the evolution of a dynamic system, characterized by some variables and parameters. Depending on the type of dynamic of the system, the series may be stationary, periodic, quasiperiodic, chaotic or random. In this series of articles, I will focus on the characterization of chaotic dynamics, which is presented by complex systems, by using graphical methods.

• ## Random numbers generation

24/04/2016

In many applications it is necessary to generate random numbers. To do so, the .NET framework provides the Random class, which can generate uniformly distributed pseudo-random values, which means that all numbers are equally likely to appear in the result. But in some cases we need to generate random values that follow other different types of distribution. In this article we will see how to generate random numbers that follow a normal distribution, with a system that can be extended to any other type of distribution.